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Reply to Rudolph  

Reasoning, Power, and Worldviews as Decision Forces

Leaders have a crucial role in making decisions despite the level of management they are in an organization. However, their decisions are influenced by several factors, including ethical considerations. Scholars have established a direct relationship between ethical behavior and decision-making associated with leaders. In addition to ethical concerns, power, reasoning, and worldviews also influence leaders significantly in making decisions in their leadership (Clifton, 2017). This discussion analyses how ethical considerations, reasoning, power, and worldviews may influence leaders’ decisions. Besides, the discussion expounds on how the decision-making method used by leaders affects their ability to control.

Decision-making is important for the success of a business or an organization. In making decisions, leaders have to consider whether they are doing something good or bad. The act, ideas, and concepts to address good or bad relating to human behavior can be considered ethical considerations. Before deciding on their operations, leaders have to consider whether they are doing a good thing or they are doing a bad thing. If their decision might compromise the code of ethics, then it is advisable to make a different decision (Torlak et al., 2021). For instance, something unethical like giving a tender to an unqualified friend might lead to the substandard performance of the contract awarded. In this scenario, the leader has to evaluate the consequences associated with the case and make an alternative decision that abides by the code of ethics. When having ethical considerations, leaders might find it hard because they will encounter different ethical dilemmas. An ethical dilemma refers to a situation where a person or leaders are torn to decide the consequences after that. For instance, in the scenario given earlier, a leader may be torn to award the incompetent friend the tender or lose the friendship. However, it is wise for leaders to always be ethical and consider the code of contact before making any decisions or implementing the choice.

How leaders reason before making a decision also influences how they make their decisions. Some leaders make quick decisions which in most cases are not good ones. Other leaders make decisions solely and do not involve other leaders or team members in their decisions. This affects the kind of decision they make. Leaders should not make decisions solely. Maybe they should involve members of the team or involve other leaders in their decision-making process (Torlak et al., 2021). Besides, making quick decisions or making decisions when they are not at ease is not recommendable. Reasoning with others is vital for leaders to make an informed decision.

Besides, the power leaders have, or their positions in a given structure in an organization also influence their decisions. For instance, operational leaders cannot make decisions that impact the whole organization (Clifton, 2017). Besides, their power limits them to make decisions that are limited to the day-to-day operations of the organizations. Same way, top-level management gives the leaders to make long-term decisions that affect the organization in the long run. Besides, the decisions they make can affect the entire department of the organization.

Lastly, the views of the society also have a great impact on leaders on making decisions. The social norms that exist in society contribute a lot to how leaders make their decisions. For example, social norms relating to how people should be treated dictates the kind of decisions leaders make. Leaders are making likely to make decisions that conform to the expectations of the society in which they live in. The social norms have an element of control, which creates fear or guilt when a leader makes a certain decision (Torlak et al., 2021). Therefore, the social norms dictate the actions made by leaders in their day to day activities. In a way, they dictate what society should do and what it should avoid. In other words, social norms constrain the behavior of leaders, thus influencing the kind of decisions they make.

There are four main methods of decision-making, command, consult, vote, and consensus. The method used by a leader has a direct link to how effective the method influences the team. Depending on the team the leader is leading, the leader can choose the effective method to implement to lead effectively (Clifton, 2017). On some occasions or some teams, a leader will be forced to vote, while others will need to command. In some, the leader needs to consult, while in others needs to implement the consensus. Effective leaders will know the effective method to use to influence the team and the followers they lead.

References

Clifton, J. (2017). Taking the (heroic) leader out of leadership. The practice of distributed leadership in decision-making talk. In Challenging leadership stereotypes through discourse (pp. 45-68). Springer, Singapore.

Torlak, N. G., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2021). Decision-making, leadership and performance links in private education institutes. Rajagiri Management Journal.

 

Reply to Amanda

 

Reasoning, Power, and Worldviews as Decision Forces

Decision Forces

There are a variety of components that determine a leader’s decision making skills including reasoning, power, and worldviews. Ethical decision making includes components of ethical behavior including moral sensitivity, moral judgement, moral motivation, and moral character. Moral sensitivity is being able to recognize the ethical dilemma or problem. Cognitive moral development involves stages of development over one’s early stages of development. The first stage is preconventional which is the most primitive level of moral development and judgement. Preconventional moral development includes reasoning based on punishment. The individual’s motivation in this stage is to avoid punishment. The next stage is conventional moral development and individuals in this stage of ethical and moral development are concerned with living up to expectations of their families and significant others. Johnson reports “the typical organizational member looks to work rules, leaders, and the situation to determine right from wrong” (Johnson, 2019, p. 64). The final stage is postconventional thinking and this is the most advanced reasoning secondary to individuals are focused on doing the greatest good for the greatest number (Johnson, 2019). Just as individuals progress in physical development over time so does their moral reasoning and moral judgement.

Many leaders and individuals ignore their internal moral compass due to a variety of reasons including insecurities, greed, and ego. The current work environment does not support employee’s ability to do the right thing or to do things ethically. Johnson reports “modern workers are under constant time pressures as organizations cut staffing levels while demanding higher performance in the form of shorter product development cycles, better customer service, and greater returns on investment” (Johnson, 2019, p. 66). Employees are expected to do more with less resources. The reduction of resources will ultimately lead to employees cutting corners and sacrificing ethical decision making for the short term win. Organizational leaders need to improve their moral judgement by acknowledging their human characteristics like ego to keep these characteristics from compromising their ability to make moral and ethical decisions. Doing the right thing or the ethical thing is not always easy, so many will do what is easy versus what is right or ethical.

Moral character is another component of one’s ability to act ethically. Those with moral character have the ability to overcome detractors and complete the task without compromising their moral character or ethical decision making capabilities. Johnson reports “moral agents must overcome active opposition, cope with fatigue, resist detractions, and develop sophisticated strategies for reaching their goals” (Johnson, 2019, p. 74). All of these components of moral development result in the emergence of moral leadership. Solinger et al. report “moral leadership indicate that individuals may disrupt the moral fabric or organizations and society by taking organizational members and other stakeholders along in embracing an alternative moral view of issues” (Solinger et al., 2020, p. 504). Moral leaders act with purpose and intention in a manner that is focused on doing the greatest good both inside the organization and outside the organization.

Power is another component of ethical decision making. Organizational leaders are capable of influencing others based on their position and the power associated with their position. There are different forms of power that provide influence over others’ behaviors. These include coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, and referent power. Power and the use of power to influence others is not immoral. Power can be used in both positive and negative ways by leaders. Leaders that are moral and ethical will use their power for positive impact on the organization. Organizational leaders should use their power and influence to improve organizational operations by making ethical decisions and influencing others within the organization to do the same. Reasoning, power, and world views and impact the leader’s ability to make decisions on behalf of the organization. Organizational leaders need to develop their moral character to ensure they are making decisions that are ethical which will inherently improve the organization and have a significant impact on the community in which the organization operates. Thoroughly thinking through decisions with intentional purpose to make ethical decision will prevent leaders from making unethical decisions that could negatively impact the organization and its employees. Leaders need to act with intention while being aware of their moral character and focus on organizational ethics. Organizational leaders must have self-awareness regarding things that can compromise their moral character such as ego. Timothy 3:2 says “for people will be lovers of self, lovers of money, proud, arrogant, abusive, disobedient to their parents, ungrateful, unholy” (The Bible, n.d., Chapter Timothy). Ego and greed can be negative detractors from ethical leadership and ethical decision making.

 

References

Damer, T. E. (2013). Attacking faulty reasoning: A practical guide to fallacy-free arguments (7th ed.). Wadsworth.

Johnson, C. E. (2019). Organizational ethics: A practical approach (4th ed.). SAGE Publications.

Koukl, G. (2017). The story of reality: How the world began, how it ends, and everything important that happens in between. Zondervan.

Solinger, O. N., Jansen, P. G., & Cornelissen, J. P. (2020). The emergence of moral leadership. Academy of Management Review45(3), 504–527.

The Bible (King James Bible ed.). (n.d.).

 

 

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Respond to Eric

Reasoning and power are important tools a leader should utilize to lead an organization; however, their worldviews shape how leaders use reasoning and power. Worldviews take into consideration other cultures and how they view actions, processes, and products. A leader that has a diverse worldview can take into consideration multiple cultural variables when utilizing reasoning and power to make a decision. While organizations should invest in a diverse workforce, organizations also have to invest in leaders’ ability to lead a diverse workforce. “To remain key players in the global development, organizations invest in developing leaders who have competencies to understand and manage diversity both at home and globally” (Ly, 2020, p. 1). Individuals in leadership positions must be exposed to different cultures and worldviews to identify how their ability to lead and their actions are interpreted by their diverse workforce and external constituents of the organization. Global organizations often meet with international members and their worldview perspectives have to be considered in the decision-making process. A leader has to have a diverse worldview to effectively use reasoning and power to make decisions for an organization.

Worldviews influences leaders’ reasoning and power because they take into consideration the viewpoint of other cultures. “Individual’s judgment of what is morally right or wrong is influenced by how he or she reasons about moral issues” (Giurge et al., 2021, p. 2). Leaders with a comprehensive understanding of various worldviews make a leader more effective in guiding and mentoring members of an organization. Individuals that can view different perspectives from the worldviews of others allow them to relate to other cultures and know what those worldviews deem as right or wrong morally. “While effective leaders comprehend their worldview, awareness of other worldviews will foster effective communication and better understanding” (Auxier, 2015, p. 2). Leaders have to be able to work with multiple cultures for an organization to be successful. Globalization and technological advances have made it easier for leaders to interact with multiple cultures. “Today’s international organizations require leaders who can adjust to different environments quickly and work with partners and employees of other cultures” (Ly, 2020, p. 1). Worldviews are essential for leaders to effectively utilize reasoning and power with other organizations with other worldviews and different cultures.

 

References

Auxier, W. R. (2015). A comparison of worldviews of business leaders from disparate geographic cultures. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 8(2), 1-9. http://scholar.valpo.edu/jvbl/vol8/iss2/8

Giurge, L. M., van Dijke, M., Zheng, M. X. & Cremer, D. (2021). Does power corrupt the mind? The influence of power on moral reasoning and self-interested behavior. The Leadership Quarterly, 32(4), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2019.03.003

Ly, N. (2020). Cultural influences on leadership: Western-dominated leadership and non-western conceptualizations of leadership. Sociology and Anthropology, 8(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.13189/sa.2020.080101

 

Respond to Dawnne

Employees are more likely to comply when they trust leaders. Ethical considerations are the result of a culture that supports ethical competencies. Johnson (2019) states that ethical considerations in organizations are good behaviors that include obedience, answerability, effective communication, mutual trust, and respect. Proper use of ethical behavior is challenging regarding the recognition of morals and ethics when adapting to situations and maintaining moral sensitivity (Johnson, 2019). Shanks (2021) posits that ethical considerations such as reasoning, power and worldview are developed through the ethical construction of the leader and the company. Leaders that are ethically and morally stable can integrate utilitarianism concepts in decision-making (Johnson, 2019). Regarding reasoning, power, and worldview, Kraus and Marco (2016) conclude that sharing decision-making improves relationships between leaders and followers. This should become a staple way of developing a multi-layered decision-making process disregarding any specific consideration.

            Reasoning and power strengthen, according to Johnson (2019), a person’s ability to make informed decisions using consensus and influence. This assessment suggests that reasoning details clear steps in making decisions whereas power wields influence over behaviors and actions. Jordan et al. (2013) proposes that the perception from employees, regarding ethical reasoning in leadership, is dependent on the leader’s cognitive morality. It is also dependent on the employees’ ability to reason through leadership behaviors. This rationalization shows a function of reasoning where employees, not leadership, contribute to the decision-making process.

            Hur (2018) says, about power, that people comply with rules because of their personal values and beliefs indicating they are ethically obligated to comply. This study by Hur supports the position Johnson (2019) presents stating improving moral judgment by “taking a broader view” in considering the needs and roles of  others in the firm that may work outside the leader’s team. When one combines reasoning and power there is an empowerment of leaders to adapt different worldviews using a consensus method. Final decision-making lies in the alignment of employee and leader ethical considerations (Ayers, 2015). Merida (2015) tells of Solomon praying for wisdom to be a better servant. “And God gave Solomon wisdom and understanding exceeding much, and largeness of heart even as the sand that is on the sea shore.” (The Holy Bible, I Kings 4:29, KJV).

 

References

Ayers, R. (2015). Aligning Individual and Organizational Performance: Goal Alignment in F

ederal Government Agency Performance Appraisal Programs. Public Personnel Management. Vol. 44, Issue 2. pp. 169-184. Retrieved May 24, 2021 from https://bi-gale-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/global/article/GALE%7CA415442973?u=vic_liberty&sid=summon

Hur, A. (2018). Citizen Duty and the Ethical Power of Communities: Mixed-Method Evidence

from East Asia. British Journal of Political Science. Vol. 50, Issue 3. pp. 1047-1065. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123418000066

Johnson, C. (2019). Organizational Ethics. A Practical Approach (4th Edition). SAGE

Publications, Inc.

Jordan, J., Brown, J., Trevino, L., & Finkelstein, S. (2013). Someone to Look Up to: Executive-

Follower Ethical Reasoning and Perceptions of Ethical Leadership. Journal of Management. Vol. 39, No. 3. pp. 660-6863. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311398136

Kraus, C., & Marco, C. (2016). Shared decision making in the ED: ethical considerations.

American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 34. pp. 1668-1672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2016.05.058

Merida, T. (2015). Christ-Centered Exposition Exalting Jesus in 1 & 2 Kings. B&H Publishing

Group.

Shanks, E. (2021). Reasoning, Power, and Worldviews as Decision Forces Discussion Board.

Retrieved May 24, 2021 from https://canvas.liberty.edu/courses/95069/discussion_topics/602249

The Holy Bible. Authorized King James Version. (1798/2011). Thomas Nelson Inc.

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