critical thinking strategies that support us in our effective thinking

critical thinking strategies that support us in our effective thinking

From the first two modules of this course, we have learned that there are crucial critical thinking strategies that support us in our effective thinking.

There is also a good deal of research out there showing the human capacity of nonconscious thinking, or “thinking without explicitly thinking” as integral to effective thinking. Bechara, H. Damasio, Tranel, and A. R. Damasio (1997) provided germinal contribution to the exploration of “thinking without explicitly thinking”.

For our first writing assignment, we will compare and contrast critical thinking strategies (Facione & Gittens, 2016, p. 34) with “thinking without explicitly thinking” (Bechara et al., 1997). We will consider how each approach contributes to our effective thinking.

Instructions

1. Please use the ASU Library website to locate and read the article:

Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1997). Deciding advantageously before knowing the

advantageous strategy. Science275(5304), 1293-1295.

2. Summarize the article (What is the purpose of the experiment? Who are the participants? What is measured; How is that “what” measured? What are the Findings & Conclusions?).

3. Contrast the nonconscious thinking approach to information-processing discussed article (Bechara et al., 1997) with the critical thinking approaches addressed in the first two modules in this course with specific attention to the Six Core Critical Thinking Skills (Facione & Gittens, 2016, p. 34). Please select a minimum of two of these six core critical thinking skills to compare and with the nonconscious thinking approach discussed in the assigned article.

For example, compare and contrast nonconscious thinking with the core critical thinking skill of self-regulation; compare and contrast nonconscious thinking with the core critical thinking skill of evaluation.

4. How does one reconcile these two approaches to problem-solving in one’s quest to become a strong critical thinker and adept truth-seeker. Describe the value to each of these information processing methods (nonconscious thinking and critical thinking). Explain how these strategies may work work together to facilitate effective thinking.

5. Cite at least one other scholarly article in generating your argument. This source is NOT to be cited in your article summary section. You must cite the Bechara et al. (1997) and our course textbook (Facione & Gittens, 2016) along with this secondary source.

6. Be mindful of grammar and writing mechanics. The paper should be a minimum of 800 words (this word count DOES NOT include your reference section or cover page), and meet the standards of APA style. You may find the attached template to be helpful in constructing an APA-styled paper.

REVIEW to guide to writing a psychology paper provided in the link above this assignment. DO NOT write in the 1st or 2nd person (i.e., no “I”, “We”, “You”, etc.) – formal writing in completed in the 3rd person. Third-person point of view uses proper nouns (such as given name, “John Smith”) or nouns (such as researchers, participants, one, etc.) or pronouns (such as “they”).In general, formal academic writing discourages the use of first or second person as it makes writing present as less objective.

Always include an introduction and a conclusion in all formal writing assignments.

Rubric

Not presentInsufficientSufficientGoodExcellentPoints
Summarize the article(0) No clear summary(10) Does not present the idea clearly or completely(20) Presents a clear idea but it may not be complete; incomplete detail regarding hypotheses, method, findings and/or conclusions(25) Idea is presented clearly and completely; may lack some details regarding hypotheses, method, findings, conclusions(30) Idea is presented in a way that shows in-depth understanding of the article (thorough discussion on hypotheses, method, findings, conclusion)30
Contrast the modality of thinking suggested in the article with core critical thinking skills/strategies from textbook(0) No mention of textbook strategies or the article idea(10) Presents either or both sources without comparison(20) Presents at least 1 similarity and/or difference between the two sources; discussing and defining a min. of 1 core critical thinking skill; cites textbook(25) Presents the differences and similarities between the two sources thoroughly; discusses/defines a min. of 2 core critical thinking skills; cites textbook(30) Presents the differences and similarities between the two and highlight the critical aspects; discusses/defines a min. of 2 core critical thinking skills; cites textbook30
Reconcile the main idea from the article with textbook strategies(0) No integration of the two sources(5) An attempt to integrate the two but no clear conclusion(10) Integrate the two with a clear conclusion but it may not be complete(15) Integrate the two with a clear and complete conclusion(20) Integrate the two with a conclusion that is sophisticated (for example, considering different contexts)20
Support arguments with 1 scholarly reference in addition to textbook and assigned article(0) No additional scholarly reference(2.5) The reference is not scholarly(5) The reference is somewhat relevant to the arguments(7.5) The reference is relevant to the arguments(10) The reference significantly enhances the arguments10
Organization and logic flow of paper

– basic elements like introduction, main body, conclusion

– transitions between elements

– logical flow of ideas

(0) Missing important elements like introduction, proper transition, conclusion… etc. and the information is not logically sequenced(2.5) A certain element of the paper (like introduction, conclusion… etc.) is not clear or logic flow is flawed(5) The basic structure is sound and the logic flow is adequate but transitions may not be optimal(7.5) The basic structure and logic flow are sound, with generally effective transitions(10) The structure and logic flow are tight and precise with no unnecessary details or weak links10
Writing mechanics:

– spelling

– word choice

– sentence structure

– overall length

– third person writing

(0) Typos and grammatical errors are pervasive and impede on comprehension of the text(2.5) Typos and grammatical errors are numerous but the gist of the paper is discernible; or length is shorter than 800 words (not including references)(5) There are a few typos or grammatical errors but the ideas of the paper are clear, length is at least 800 words(not including references)(7.5) There is no (or almost no) typo or grammatical error, length is at least 800 words(not including references)(10) Superb and precise word selections and effective use of sentence structures, length is at least 800 words(not including references)10
APA format

– margins, font size, font type, headings, spacing, title page

– in-text citation, reference section

(0) No attempt at adopting APA format(2.5) Missing in-text citations or reference section(5) Some minor APA format errors are present but in-text citations and reference section are present and accurate(7.5) 1-2 APA format or reference errors are present but the writing is esthetically pleasing(10) No APA format or reference errors are present and the paper is esthetically pleasing (for example, consistent use of spacing… etc.)10
Total120

(Scroll to the very bottom of this page, below the rubric to view a screencast regarding this assignment)

Rubric

WA-1

WA-1

CriteriaRatingsPts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSummarize the article
30 ptsFull Marks

Idea is presented in a way that shows in-depth understanding of the article (thorough discussion on hypotheses, method, finding, conclusion)

25 ptsIdea is presented clearly and completely

Idea is presented clearly and completely; may lack some details regarding hypotheses, method, findings, conclusions

20 ptsPresents a clear idea but it may not be complete

Presents a clear idea but it may not be complete; incomplete discussion on hypotheses, method, findings, conclusions

10 ptsDoes not present the idea clearly or completely

Does not present the idea clearly or completely

0 ptsNo Marks

No clear summary

30 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContrast the main idea with strategies/core critical thinking skills from textbook
30 ptsFull Marks

Presents the differences and similarities between the two and highlight the critical aspects; discusses/defines a min. of 2 core critical thinking skills; cites textbook

25 ptsPresents the differences and similarities between the two sources thoroughly

Presents the differences and similarities between the two sources thoroughly; discusses/defines a min. of 2 core critical thinking skills; cites textbook

20 ptsPresents at least 1 similarity and/or difference between the two sources

Presents at least 1 similarity and/or difference between the two sources; discussing and defining a min. of 1 core critical thinking skill; cites textbook

10 ptsPresents either or both sources without comparison

Presents either or both sources without comparison

0 ptsNo Marks

No mention of textbook strategies or the article idea

30 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeReconcile the main idea from the article with textbook strategies
20 ptsFull Marks

Integrate the two with a conclusion that is sophisticated (for example, considering different contexts)

15 ptsIntegrate the two with a clear and complete conclusion10 ptsIntegrate the two with a clear conclusion but it may not be complete

Integrate the two with a clear conclusion but it may not be complete

5 ptsAn attempt to integrate the two but no clear conclusion

An attempt to integrate the two but no clear conclusion

0 ptsNo Marks

No integration of the two sources

20 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSupport arguments with 1 scholarly reference in addition to textbook and assigned article
10 ptsFull Marks

The reference significantly enhances the arguments

7.5 ptsThe reference is relevant to the arguments5 ptsThe reference is somewhat relevant to the arguments

The reference is somewhat relevant to the arguments

2.5 ptsThe reference is not scholarly

The reference is not scholarly

0 ptsNo Marks

No additional scholarly reference

10 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOrganization and logic flow of paper– basic elements like introduction, main body, conclusion
– transitions between elements
– logical flow of ideas
10 ptsFull Marks

The structure and logic flow are tight and precise with no unnecessary details or weak links

7.5 ptsThe basic structure and logic flow are sound, with generally effective transitions

The basic structure and logic flow are sound, with generally effective transitions

5 ptsThe basic structure is sound and the logic flow is adequate but transitions may not be optimal

The basic structure is sound and the logic flow is adequate but transitions may not be optimal

2.5 ptsA certain element of the paper

A certain element of the paper (like introduction, conclusion… etc.) is not clear or logic flow is flawed

0 ptsNo Marks

Missing important elements like introduction, proper transition, conclusion… etc. and the information is not logically sequenced

10 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting mechanics:– spelling
– word choice
– sentence structure
– overall length
– third person writing
10 ptsFull Marks

Superb and precise word selections and effective use of sentence structures, length is at least 800 words(not including references)

7.5 ptsThere is no (or almost no) typo or grammatical error

There is no (or almost no) typo or grammatical error, length is at least 800 words(not including references)

5 ptsThere are a few typos or grammatical errors

There are a few typos or grammatical errors but the ideas of the paper are clear, length is at least 800 words(not including references)

2.5 ptsTypos and grammatical errors are numerous

Typos and grammatical errors are numerous but the gist of the paper is discernible; or length is shorter than 800 words (not including references)

0 ptsNo Marks

Typos and grammatical errors are pervasive and impede on comprehension of the text

10 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA format– margins, font size, font type, headings, spacing, title page
– in-text citation, reference section
10 ptsFull Marks

No APA format or reference errors are present and the paper is esthetically pleasing (for example, consistent use of spacing… etc.)

7.5 pts1-2 APA format

1-2 APA format or reference errors are present but the writing is esthetically pleasing

5 ptsSome minor APA format errors

Some minor APA format errors are present but in-text citations and reference section are present and accurate

2.5 ptsMissing in-text citations or reference section

Missing in-text citations or reference section

0 ptsNo Marks

No attempt at adopting APA format

10 pts
Total Points: 120

Requirements: 800 words w/o citations   |   .doc file

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