justice and civil rights in history

justice and civil rights in history


SOURCE 1 “The American Yawp” Chapter 25-30(ONLY) https://www.americanyawp.com/

SOURCE 2 “Letter From a Birminghan Jail” https://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_B…

Source 3 “How Black Lives Matter” https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/21306771/b…

Souce 4 “Man and Women of the Year” http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,…e

Source 5 “Text of the Speech”https://voicesofdemocracy.umd.edu/buchanan-culture…

Souce 6 ” How 9/11 Changed America” https://www.kqed.org/lowdown/14066/13-years-later-…

There is no need to consult sources other than course materials to successfully complete this exam. Please use informal parenthetical in-text citations that mention the name of the source like this (Lecture 4.1)Your writing must include parenthetical in-text citations directly after the information referenced. A works cited at the end makes it difficult for us to grade your engagement with the sources. As such, the failure to include in-text parenthetical citations, as modeled above, will result in point deductions. Do not cite or include any outside sources. The use of outside sources will result in significant point deductions. Copying and pasting without quotation marks is plagiarism and will be graded accordingly. Do not copy and paste directly (even with quotes) from course materials, particularly secondary sources. Merely quoting from the textbook does not demonstrate understanding of and engagement with course materials. It is best to synthesize course materials and put them in your own words.


Q: Throughout Barack Obama’s presidency, he often invoked Martin Luther King Jr.’s quote “the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice.” In your response answer, to what extent does this quote accurately represent the history of justice from 1945- 2020? Your response could approach justice from the lens of civil rights, civil liberties, peace/ foreign interventions, or something else (as long as you can support your choice with evidence from course materials).

  1. Introduction: In your introduction discuss what the quote means, particularly how you define justice in your analysis. Provide a clear thesis statement that responds to the prompt and states how you will support your argument.
  2. In your body paragraphs, select three examples from distinct historical moments between 1945 and 2020 that speak to the issue of justice (according to your definition) and advance your answer to the prompt.
  3. In your conclusion: Sum up your analysis by restating your thesis and your supporting evidence. Consider, given the trajectory you outline in your essay, what would need to happen for the arc to bend further towards justice in the future?

Outline for a Five-Paragraph Essay
Paragraph 1: Introduction
Paragraph 2: Body Paragraph
Paragraph 3: Body Paragraph
Paragraph 4: Body Paragraph
Paragraph 5: Conclusion
Think of the introduction and conclusion as “bookends” that serve to hold the essay tightly together. The
introduction will “push” into or initiate the examination of your topic and the angle you decide to focus on, while
the conclusion will “pull” tight all the ideas that you have gathered together for a unified essay.
Remember, the five-paragraph model can be expanded to include more body paragraphs that probe more deeply
into your subject. Check with your instructor to ensure whether or not you can exceed this length for an
The introductory paragraph should include the following elements:
Background information: Enough information necessary for your reader to understand your topic
Thesis statement: Indicates your paper’s topic, makes your paper’s purpose clear, and provides an
overview of the three main supporting points that will unify the essay. The thesis statement is typically
the last sentence.
If you are writing in response to a text, the introduction should include the title, author, and genre of that
Begins with a topic sentence that identifies one main idea that will be discussed as support or proof for the
thesis statement
Supporting sentences use specific details, demonstrated through closely related examples or evidence, to
expand and explain the main idea. Generally, a well-developed paragraph has at least five to eight
Paragraph unity means that all ideas in a paragraph are closely related to its topic sentence and further
develop that topic sentence. That is, all sentences in a single paragraph must be unified around a central
point or idea.
This paragraph, and any subsequent body paragraph, should begin with a topic sentence that signals the
reader that a new idea or point is being introduced.
As you organize your essay, keep in mind its coherence. Coherence refers to connections among
paragraphs and ideas—the logical sequence of your thoughts.
o Use transition words or phrases at the outset of your body paragraphs and to move from one idea
to another within your paragraphs.
o Have you transitioned logically from the main idea in the previous paragraph to this one? Are you
making clear connections among the paragraphs and ideas? Be sure to think about coherence during
the revision stage of the writing process.
This paragraph begins with the final topic sentence that relates back to the remaining point mentioned in the
thesis statement. Each paragraph should contain a new main idea.
Again, flesh out this main idea with specific examples, details, and relevant support.
Be sure to maintain paragraph unity. That is, each sentence must relate to your topic sentence.
The conclusion revisits your overall purpose for writing and often invites your reader to consider the
implications of why your ideas are significant.
The conclusion may restate the thesis, summarize the paper’s major points, or leave the reader with a final
thought to ponder. Several other methods for writing conclusions are included on a separate Tutoring Center
handout. If you choose to restate the thesis or summarize the essay’s main ideas, do not r

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