Assessment task 2: Clinical Case Scenario

Assessment task 2: Clinical Case Scenario (Essay) 

 

Weight: 40%

Length: 2000 words

 

Learning outcomes: 1, 2 & 3

  1. Critically review the interrelation between global and national primary health care frameworks and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, and their implications for nursing practice and healthcare delivery in communities, for different populations across the lifespan
  2. Demonstrate an effective, evidence-informed and strengths-based approach to assessment, planning, delivery and evaluation in nursing practice to meet primary health care needs of individuals, families, groups and communities
  3. Critically examine the role of Australian communities in the development of health strategies, in relation to the component of the WHO primary health care definition of empowering people to optimise their health as policy advocates and co-developers of health services

 

Assessment description

You are required to write a 2000 word essay that discusses the relationship between social determinants of health (SDH) and the delivery of primary health care in improving health outcomes and access to health care.

 

Task Instruction

  1. Read the following case scenario
  2. Critically discuss how social determinants of health (SDH) impact on Clare’s poor health outcomes
  3. Discuss the strategies that might improve her access to health care and reduce inequity
  4. Use the National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework and Strength-Based Approach to underpin your strategies
  5. The following components should be included in your written essay:

 

  1. Introduction: gives background to the topic and states precisely what the essay intends to cover
  2. Body Text: shows evidence of critical thinking and analysis; and uses current evidence-based research to support the argument
  3. Conclusion: draws evidence together, does not over-generalise or introduce new material
  4. Reference list: contains details of all sources cited in your essay

 

 

Case scenario: Clare’s story

 

Clare, a 38-year-old Aboriginal woman, attended an Aboriginal Health Service with chest pain and breathing difficulties. She is a single mother living with three young children in a rural area. She separated from her partner last year and quit her job to look after her children. Her first point of contact at the service was an Aboriginal health worker who referred her immediately for examination by a General Practitioner (GP). Clare was interviewed and examined by the GP who discussed with her the risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. She was then given an appointment card to return the following week for a cholesterol test and two weeks later an appointment with a cardiac specialist. She did not fully understand what ischaemic heart disease is but she did not want to ask her GP too many questions. She did not attend the cholesterol test nor the specialist appointment because no one helped her look after her children and she thought the appointment was not important.

 

However, Clare visited the service on subsequent occasions later in the year for treatment of boils and later, a dog bite. Approximately nine months after the first attendance she visited the service with pain under her right shoulder. She was given a sample pack of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug by another GP. One and a half hours after this visit, the service received a telephone call from the local hospital advising that she had collapsed on her way home from visiting the service and had been taken to hospital by ambulance. She was able to be resuscitated and was admitted to the intensive care unit. The test results revealed that the cause of her collapse was coronary atherosclerosis. There was evidence of myocardial fibrosis, which was consistent with longstanding coronary artery disease.

 

Case scenario was adapted from Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (2011) Patient Safety in Primary Health Care: Consultation report. Retrieved from https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/sites/default/files/migrated/Primary-Health-Care-Consultation-Report-July-2011.pdf

 

Please Note

  1. Use online module resources from Modules 1-4 (particularly Weeks 5-8) for Assessment 2 preparation
  2. Discuss how your strategies align with the National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework and Strength-Based Nursing
  3. Use current and relevant literature to support your argument (eg. journal articles, textbooks, research publications and official websites)
  4. Provide a well structured, logically sequenced essay in appropriate English
  5. Include in-text citation and a reference list using correct APA 7th referencing technique

 

Submission Instruction

  1. Make sure you have completed a 2000 word essay that addresses the task components
  2. Save your file as Microsoft Word document
  3. Load your file onto Learnline– select the correct file before you click Submission button

 

Please note

You have one attempt to submit your Assessment 2. It is a student’s responsibility to ensure that you have submitted the correct file.

 

 

This module will introduce you to local and global approaches to primary health care.

 

Week 5

This week you will be introduced to:

  • The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals
  • National and global primary health care frameworks

 

By the end of this week you should be able to:

  • Identify national and global primary health care frameworks and discuss the implications for nursing practice and healthcare delivery in relation to the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals
  • Examine the interrelation of priorities in global and national frameworks

 

Content

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals serve as a blueprint for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are designed to improve health and education, reduce inequality and promote economic growth while simultaneously caring for the environment. Visit this link to learn more about the 17 goals and their history.

 

 

THE 17 GOALS | Sustainable Development (un.org)

 

How primary health care can contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and some of the systemic obstacles to achievement is explored in the following article.

Click here to review these goals.

 

Three years after the observations outlined in the article by Pettigrew et al., (2015) the authors of the following article show that countries who reorientated their health systems towards primary health care are better placed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals than countries that continued to rely on hospital-focused systems.

Click here to review this article.

 

Furthermore, Hone, Macinko and Millet (2018) suggest that implementing an Alma-Ata based version of primary health care could deliver even greater gains towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals by addressing the wider determinants of health.

 

Your set text stresses the point that the Sustainable Development Goals are not just relevant to people in low-income countries and echoes the call by the International Council of Nurses for nurses to become the catalysts of change, raise their voice at the policy table and work in partnership with the multidisciplinary team to achieve change (Clendon and Munns, 2019).

 

Two years prior to the launch of the Sustainable Development Goals the Australian Government launched its National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework

nphc strategic_framework_final.pdf (health.qld.gov.au)

 

nphc_strategic_framework_final.pdf

 

 

Your set text (Clendon & Munns, 2019) is critical of the document as it confuses primary care with primary health care and fails to provide the direction and resources needed to facilitate change.

 

The more recent Australia’s Long Term National Health Plan Australia’s Long Term National Health Plan | Australian Government Department of Health incorporates a Primary Health Care 10-year plan designed to set a vision and path to guide future primary health care reform. Unfortunately, the release of the plan was delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic (Coleman, 2021). ajr.12726.pdf

 

australia-s-long-term-national-health-plan_0.pdf

 

For an overview of the current state of primary health care in Australia please visit this link: Primary health care – Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (aihw.gov.au)

 

From a global rather than national perspective there are organisations working towards the elevation of primary health care as a global priority. One such organisation is the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative. The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative supports the global state of primary health care through measurement, improvement and engagement. PHCPI | (improvingphc.org) A useful initiative provided by the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative on their website is the critical components of a strong primary health care system as described in the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative Conceptual Framework The PHCPI Conceptual Framework | PHCPI (improvingphc.org).

 

 

Readings

Chapter 2 – Healthy policies for healthy communities – (pages 53 – 58): Clendon, J., & Munns, A. (2019). Community Health and Wellness: Principles of primary health care (6th ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier

You can access this reading online by clicking here to take you to the reading list.

 

Chapter 3 – Communities of place – (page 65): Clendon, J., & Munns, A. (2019). Community Health and Wellness: Principles of primary health care (6th ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier

You can access this reading online by clicking here to take you to the reading list.

 

Activity 1:

Complete all the readings provided for this week in order to understand:

  • the national and global primary health care frameworks
  • the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals
  • the interrelation of priorities in global and national frameworks

 

Activity 2:

From your reflection on the above readings answer the following questions:

-Can you describe the differences between primary care with primary health care?

-As a nurse, what is your role in promoting primary health care?

 

This week you will be introduced to:

  • The difference between deficit and strength-based approaches in the delivery of primary health care

 

By the end of this week you should be able to:

  • Compare a strengths-based versus a deficit model of primary health care
  • Using a strength-based approach develop culturally safe primary health care for individuals, families and groups

 

 

 

Ideally, when formulating intervention plans for individuals, families or communities it is important that a strengths-based approach is used. The following article is a good overview of strengths-based nursing and will introduce you to the eight principles that underpins strengths-based nursing.

Click here to review this article.

While it is important to focus on strengths it is also important to not completely ignore deficits. Deficits need to be minimised. When deficits are minimised then the focus of a care plan can be underpinned by a person’s, family’s or community’s strengths. The following report explains how a focus on deficits can negatively influence health:

deficit-discourse-strengths-based.pdf (lowitja.org.au)

 

deficit-discourse-strengths-based.pdf

 

The report by Fogarty et al., (2018) provides two main reasons for the justification of using a strength-based approach in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health settings:

  1. Utilitarian justifications, advocating the use of strengths-based approaches based on efficiency in resourcing, funding or similarity to existing approaches and
  2. Binary justifications, arguing that strengths-based approaches are necessary to correct or counterbalance existing negative stereotypes.

 

The report explores the positive and negative aspects of both these reasons in detail.

Your set text goes on to provide you with strategies for working in partnership with individuals and families to develop sustainable people-centred care plans.

Chapter 6 – Planning for intervention – (pages 139 – 158): Clendon, J., & Munns, A. (2019). Community Health and Wellness: Principles of primary health care (6th ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier

You can access this reading online by clicking here to take you to the reading list.

 

 

 

Activity 1:

Complete all the readings for this week in order to understand:

  • the differences between strengths-based and a deficit model of primary health care
  • the utilisation of strength-based approach to develop culturally safe primary health care for individuals, families and groups

 

Activity 2:

From your reflection on the above readings answer the following questions:

-What are the eight values of Strengths-Based Nursing?

-As a nurse, Why, How and When you can utilise strength-based approach to develop culturally safe primary health care for your patients/clients and their families?

Week 7

This week you will be introduced to:

  • The role of the primary health care/community nurse
  • Primary health care workforce development
  • Care coordination and a team-based approach to care
  • Person-centred care

By the end of this week you should be able to:

  • Demonstrate an effective, evidence-informed approach to assessment, planning, delivery and evaluation
  • Consider the implications of primary health care needs, frameworks and changing delivery systems, for nursing leadership in practice and professional contexts

Nurses apply the goals and principles of primary health care in a variety of settings. In practice the distinction between primary health care and community nursing blurs. All the nursing care that happens in the community setting is not necessarily primary health care. Community and primary health care nurses are employed across all geographical areas in a wide range of service delivery settings. The following Australian College of Nursing position statement will give you a good overview of the many facets of community and primary health care nursing in Australia:

position-statement-community-primary-health-care-nursing.pdf (acn.edu.au)

position-statement-community-primary-health-care-nursing.pdf

Another group that champions the role of the primary health care nurse is the Australian Primary Health Care Nurses Association. The Australian Primary Health Care Nurses Association advances the professional recognition of primary health care nurses in addition to ensuring workforce sustainability, nurturing leadership in health and optimising the role of nurses in patient-centred care. https://www.apna.asn.au/

Primary health care nursing is very different to nursing in the acute setting and nurses coming from the acute setting can find the transition to primary health care challenging. The following article examines some of those challenges and makes suggestions that can help the acute nurse make a successful transition to the primary health care setting.

To review this article click here

The Australian Primary Health Care Nurses Association has a useful web page that defines primary health care nursing, the scope of practice and roles of the primary health care nurse and the many settings primary health care nurses work in: https://www.apna.asn.au/profession/what-is-primary-health-care-nursing.

The following video will give you an idea of what it is like to be a primary health care nurse:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpUFCV4V6SY&t=2s

This week your prescribed readings further explore the role of the primary health care nurse and the many different approaches nurses take when applying the principles of primary health care in their practice. Chapter 4 of your set text (Clendon & Munns, 2019) gives an overview of an interdisciplinary primary health care approach and various practice models, while chapter 10 focuses on inclusive research. Just like nurses who work in the acute setting primary health care nurses need to engage in evidence-based practice. Chapter 10 of your set text (Clendon & Munns, 2019) will provide you with the information you need to implement an effective, evidence-informed approach to assessment, and the planning, delivery and evaluation of care in the primary health care setting.

A 5 million Government initiative designed to increase Australia’s evidence base in primary health care, improve service delivery and patient outcomes was established in 2019 Primary Health Care Research initiative | Australian Government Department of Health. It was envisaged that the projects funded by this initiative would underpin the now delayed Primary Health Care 10-year Plan you learned about in week 5.

Chapter 4 – Primary health care in practice – (pages 85 – 113): Clendon, J., & Munns, A. (2019). Community Health and Wellness: Principles of primary health care (6th ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier

You can access this reading online by clicking here to take you to the reading list.

Chapter 10 – Inclusive research – (pages 266 – 297): Clendon, J., & Munns, A. (2019). Community Health and Wellness: Principles of primary health care (6th ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier

You can access this reading online by clicking here to take you to the reading list.

Activities

Activity 1:

Complete all the readings and video for this week in order to understand:

  • The role of the primary health care/community nurse
  • Primary health care workforce development
  • Care coordination and a team-based approach to care
  • Person-centred care

Activity 2:

From your reflection on the above readings answer the following questions:

-Why community/primary health care nurses play an important role in the delivery of Primary Health Care services?

-What is the difference between primary health care nurse and acute care nurse?

-According to the reading of Ashley et al (2017), Primary Health Care nursing has traditionally suffered as a career choice being associated with lower remuneration than acute care nursing, often perceived as a “preretirement” choice and lacking the professional challenges of acute care nursing. How about you? What is your perception of primary health care nursing?

This week you will be introduced to:

  • Community consultation
  • Meeting community expectations
  • Partnerships for health

By the end of this week you should be able to:

  • Recognise ways to meet health expectations of the community through primary health care

If you are going to meet the health expectations of a community through primary health care you firstly need to determine what the community’s health expectations are. There are various ways you can determine the health expectations of a community and they all require communication and consultation. In chapter 5 of your set text (Clendon & Munns, 2019) you will find critiques of a variety of existing assessment tools you can use to assess a community. When assessing a community, it is very important that you gather both scientific data and community perspectives.

 

The right of people to participate in the planning and implementation of their health care was established in week 1 when you were introduced to the Alma Ata and the more recent Declaration of Astana. A literature review by Bath and Wakerman (2015) further determined that community participation is associated with improved health outcomes.

Click here to view this article.

 Chapter 5 – Assessing the community – (pages 114 – 138): Clendon, J., & Munns, A. (2019). Community Health and Wellness: Principles of primary health care (6th ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier

You can access this reading online by clicking here to take you to the reading list.

 Activities

Activity 1:

Complete all the readings for this week in order to understand:

  • Community consultation
  • Meeting community expectations
  • Partnerships for health
  • Activity 2:

From your reflection on the readings above answer the following questions:

-List different community assessment tools/models and describe their strength and limitations.

-What is your opinion about community participation in primary health care? Why?

Just order here 👉 https://questessays.com/order/ and we’ll deliver a quality paper before deadline.

Open chat